Dr. Puspa Lal Pokhrel, Nepal
Abstract: The climate of Damak was unhealthy until 1965 A.D. The D. D.T. spray program started here only since 1963. Before 1963 Damak was a home of malaria. This area was dreadful due to the wide due to the wide-presence of poisonous creatures like cobras, Karent (Bungarus lividus), and scorpions. There were a lot of oxbow lake, marshes, quicksand, Holies and swamps inside the tick and dense forests of Damak. It used to be a very difficult situation to the local cowboys to rescue the new foot travelers from hill areas who plunged into the marshes. But Damak, these days, has lost its past physical landscape. The people who visited Damak in the 1960's and 1970's can hardly recognize present Damak. The actual identify of Damak still are the marshes and wetland areas. The name " Damak" itself is derived from the word "Daldal" which means "marshes" in English. In Dhimal language, " Damdam" means "Daldal" meaning " marshy". So from " Damdam" the name " Damak" was derived. This land is hard to plough as it is marshy. The paddy is planted only after digging the field with a spade. So the meaning of Damak reflects "shiny bright". As we step on one part at marshy land (Damdam place), the other part produces shiny fountains. With references to legends and proofs, Damak can be said to have been a marshy area before 1960.
Agricultural & Food
Agricultural Exports and Food Insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Qualitative Configurational Analysis
Yasin Kuso and Muhia John Gachunga, China
Abstract: Export of agricultural products is increasingly seen as one of the few viable instruments to solve the problem of food insecurity in developing countries. Using the configurative comparative method to study 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, this article argues that increasing agricultural export is only beneficial for certain types of developing countries. Before agricultural exports are encouraged, food availability, agricultural Labour productivity, the share of agriculture in total GDP, the amount of staple food imports, and the share of investment goods in total imports should be considered.
Medical & Health
HIV Health Seeking Behaviour Patterns: Perspectives of Male Boda-Boda Operators in Homa-Bay County, Kenya
Omolo Winnie Akinyi (MA) and Wilson A.P. Otengah (Ph.D), Kenya
Abstract: The mobility of the transport sector makes it difficult to access health information and treatment and/or maintain a drug regimen. Generally, population record low levels of service utilization. The study adopted three theories, key among the theories was theory of reasoned action due to the fact that it sees a person’s behavior as an intention which is a function of one’s attitude towards behavior and their subjective norm. This was a mixed methods descriptive crosssectional study. The study targeted male boda-boda operators who were aged between 20-40 years. The sample size for the study was 122. In the thematic analysis health seeking behavour among boda-boda operators is influenced by a number of factors ranging from facility factors, individual factors to provider factors. Individual boda-boda operators have their own preferences for services and where they would like to get treatment including acquisition of services. Stigma and discrimination around HIV is still a very strong correlate to use of services including testing. Provider factors such in which the operators fear that their HIV status and treatment cycles would be known to other people act as a deterrent to services acquisition. 37.7% of the operators were critical to the fact that confidentiality was a key factor in facilitation of service utilization while 62.3% indicated that they preferred closer Health facilities. Time was also critical to seeking for health services. The study recommends to the National government through NACC to increase knowledge levels on HIV/AIDS and importance of adherence.
Influence Of Socio-Economic Factors On The Utilization Of Uwezo Fund Among The Rural Youths: A Survey Of Migori County
Ouko, Calvine Ooko and Prof. Wilson A.P. Otengah, Kenya
Abstract: Uwezo Fund is one of youth funds in Kenya which aims at enhancing self-employment among the youths. Utilization of this fund remains a challenge to the youths. This study sought to assess the influence of socio-economic factors on utilization of Uwezo Fund among the rural youths in Rongo Sub-County, Migori County, Kenya. The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. It targeted youths who were recipients of Uwezo Fund in Rongo Sub-County. The target population was 1,296 youths from 108 youth groups and two government officials who were charged with a duty of implementing the fund. Cluster, Proportionate and Simple random sampling were adopted in which 125 youths were select for the study. Questionnaires, key informant interview and focus group discussion were used to collect data. The data was subjected to descriptive statistical analysis where frequency distribution and percentages were used to summarize data. Inferential statistics was used with Chi-squire and Cramer’s V Test employed to calculate and test association between study variables. Results were presented in tables, bar charts and pie charts. The study found that socio-economic factors like education and income of the youths influence planned use of the fund. The study found significant association between use of Uwezo Fund and level of education and income. There was no association between use of Uwezo Fund and occupation. The study recommends that Ministry of Public Service, Youth and Gender Affairs to consider socio-economic factors of youths in distributing the fund.